Social and Political Thought
|Student Name||Profile||Date of Defence (Year)|
|Drapeau, Thierry||The Atlantic Roots of Working-Class Internationalism:|
A Historical Re-Interpretation
Thierry Drapeau is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Transnational Studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo.
He held a PhD in the multidisciplinary program of Social and Political Thought at York University, Toronto. His research seeks primarily to recover and examine forerunner forms of cross-border labour solidarity during the rise of the early modern Atlantic world (c.1500-1850), as part of challenging the Eurocentric views on working-class internationalism and sketching out an alternative approach.
|Fritsch, Kelly Michelle||Neoliberal Biopolitics of Disability: Towards Emergent Intracorporeal Practices|
Kelly Fritsch is a Banting Postdoctoral Fellow at the
Women & Gender Studies Institute and Technoscience Research Unit, University of Toronto.
Her postdoctoral research develops crip and feminist technoscience to examine body enhancement and capacitation technologies such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and personal assistive and adaptive devices.
|Ruddy, Karen Ann||Decolonizing Literacies: Transnational Feminism, Legacies of Coloniality, and Pedagogies of transformation|
Karen Ruddy is an Instructor in the Department of Politics and Public Administration, Ryerson University.
Karen frequently teaches, "Women, Power, and Politics" in the Department of Politics and Public Administration and the G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education at Ryerson.
Karen A. Ruddy holds a Ph.D. and an M.A. in Social and Political Thought from York University (Can.). She received her B.A. in Political Studies from Queen’s University.
|Selimovic, Adnan||Stillborn: The Libidinal Economy of Gadgetized Mediation in the Era of Socialiazation for Consumers; An Explanatory Political Project.|
Adnan Selimovic, a Ph.D. candidate in York University’s Graduate Program in Social and Political Thought in Toronto, Canada, is working to finish his dissertation on youth cultures and technology while teaching courses at Ithaca College.
This semester, he is teaching Political Economy of the Illicit Drug Trade in the United States, Political Theory of Self Consciousness and U.S. Politics Through Scandals.
|Lee, Robyn||Breastfeeding: Power, Ethics, Poetics|
Robyn Lee is an Assistant Professor of Social Theory in the Sociology department at University of Alberta.
She uses contemporary social theory to explore subjectivity and embodiment. Her current research investigates emerging practices of human milk exchange, investigating how care and compassion are harnessed in the commercialization of human milk, and what kinds of relationships are created between donors and recipients.
|Weisberg, Zipporah Leslie||Animal Dialectics: Towards a Critical Theory of Animals and Society |
Leslie Zipporah Weisberg is the Abby Benjamin Postdoctoral Fellow in Animal Ethics in the philosophy department at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario.
She recently completed her Ph.D. in Social and Political Thought at York University. She specializes in critical animal studies, critical theory, and Continental philosophy.
|Topdjian, Carolyne||"Post-Beautiful Bodies: New Ways of Representing Female in Contemporary Visual Culture"|
Carolyne Topdjian is an artist, writer, and educator whose work explores existential issues of aesthetics, consciousness, and identity.
She studied painting and drawing at York University and received her MA in Gender Studies from the University of Warwick, followed by her PhD in Social and Political Thought from York University. She has since gone on to practice and publish on art, as well as develop visual art programs for youth and adults at various institutions in the Toronto area. In addition to teaching at the Living Arts Centre, Topdjian is the program lead of the Visual Arts Certificate in Continuing Education at Humber College.
|Badeen, Dennis||A Marxist Critique of the Ontological Foundations of Neoclassical Economics|
Dennis Badeen received his Ph.D from York University, Toronto, Canada, in Social and Political Thought and is currently a Marie Curie International Fellow with the Global Sustainability Institute at Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
His research interests include: history of economic thought, methodology of het erodox and mainstream economics, Marxist political economy and philosophy, ecological economics and sociopolitical responses to climate change (with an emphasis on renewable energy and energy transitions). He has published articles in the Journal of Business Ethics, International Journal for Pluralism and Economics Education, Capital and Class, among others.
|Chowdhry, Aniruddha||Post-Deconstructive Subjectivity and History: Phenomenology, Critical Theory, and Postcolonial Thought|
Aniruddha Chowdhury received his PhD through the Graduate Program of Social and Political Thought at York University.
His book Post-deconstructive Subjectivity and History: Phenomenology, Critical Theory, and Postcolonial Thought has been published by BRILL in 2014. He has also published essays in reputable national and international journals.
|Kamenova, Kalina||The Public Communication and Biopolitics of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in the United States and the European Union|
Kalina is a philosopher interested in the intersections between political thought, ethics, and aesthetics.
Her current research considers the ways in which philosophers have used the discourse of aesthetics to promote various ideological positions, and to buttress their ethical theories. Kalina is currently working on a manuscript concerning the relationship between ethics and aesthetics in the work of T.W. Adorno and Emmanuel Levinas.
|Nagam, Julie||Alternative Cartographies: Grafting a New Route for Indigenous Stories of Place|
Julie Nagam is the Chair in the History of Indigenous Art in North America this is a joint appointment with the University of Winnipeg and the Winnipeg Art Gallery.
Her current SSHRC projects include: The Transactive Memory Keepers: Indigenous Public Engagement in Digital and New Media Labs and Exhibitions and The Kanata Indigenous Performance, New and Digital Media Art. She is a co-applicant in partnership grant Initiative for Indigenous Futures and will be hosting the first Public symposium entitled, Radically Shifting Our Indigenous Future(s): Through Art, Scholarship and Technology at the Winnipeg Art Gallery in late 2017.
She has co-edited Indigenous Art New Media and the Digital as a special issue of PUBIC Art, Culture + Ideas journal. Currently she is curating a public art installation for a Reconciliation walk at the Forks in Winnipeg and leading a team to create an Indigenous App for Winnipeg’s art, architectural and place-based history.
|Liinamaa, Saara||Experiments in Urban Knowledge: Contemporary Art as Urban Research|
Saara Liinamaa is an arts writer and researcher currently finishing her doctoral dissertation in Social and Political Thought, York University.
Her research addresses issues in modern and contemporary art, culture and the city. She is currently working on topics such as art’s urban “playgrounds” and the role of the contemporary artist as urban researcher. Saara is a member of the Public Access Collective, and has contributed to and co-edited two urban-themed issues of Public, “Localities” (29) and “Urban Interventions” (32). She has carried out interviews in Toronto, Helsinki and Havana for the Visible City Project.
|Campbell, Colin J.||Beyond Vengeance: Religion and Political Liberation in Bataille, Girard and Rousseau|
Colin Campbell (Ph.D. Duke) joined the faculty as professor and the Canada Research Chair in U.S. Government and Politics in July 2002. He was also chair of the U.S. Studies Program of the Faculty of Arts 2008.
He retired in 2010. Before coming to UBC, Campbell was at York University (1975-83) and Georgetown University (1983-2002). At Georgetown, he founded and directed the Georgetown Public Policy Institute.
Campbell has authored or co-authored nine books that, with the exception of two, focus on executive-bureaucratic politics. Four of these works have drawn five awards including Managing the Presidency that won the 1987 APSA Neustadt Prize for the best book on the U.S. Presidency and Preparing for the Future that won 2004 NAPA Brownlow Award for the outstanding book in the fields of public policy and administration.
|Friedman, Elisabeth Ruth||Aesthetics of Incommensurability: Artworks, Archives and the Dilemmas of Holocaust Representation|
Elisabeth Friedman is an Associate professor at Illinois State University and an Assistant professor of art history, with a specialization in contemporary art and visual culture.
She holds a Ph.D. in social and political thought from York University. Her current research focuses on the role of globalization and biennial culture in contemporary art.
|McMurtry, John-Justin||Theory's Life Aporia: Understanding the Life Ground of Social and Political Thought|
J.J. McMurtry is an Associate Dean in Office of the Dean, Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies at York University.
His research and teaching focused on the theory and practice of alternative social, political, and economic forms. He is active in a number of communities, economic and political organizations.
|Shaw, Christine||Connect, Conjugate, Continue: Unfurling Thought and Creativity|
Christine Shaw is an artist and an independent curator.
She has produced site-specific installations, participatory environments, and architectural interventions for public
spaces and galleries and is currently developing a networked series of collaborative curatorial projects.
She is also a Director/Curator of the Blackwood Gallery and Assistant Professor, Teaching Stream, Department of Visual Studies, University of Toronto Mississauga.
|Kamugisha, Aaron||The Developmental Phases of a Healer in Ayi Kewi Armah's Novels|
Aaron Kamugisha is Senior Lecturer in Cultural Studies at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus.
He did his PhD Social and Political Thought at York University in Toronto, and was the 2007/8 Postdoctoral fellow in the Department of African-American Studies at Northwestern University. His current work is a study of coloniality, cultural citizenship and freedom in the contemporary Anglophone Caribbean, mediated through the social and political thought of C.L.R. James and Sylvia Wynter.
|Khan, Tariq Amin||Theorizing the Post-colonial State in the Era of Capitalist Globalism|
Tariq Amin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Politics and Public Administration at Ryerson University, Toronto, a faculty member of the Yeates School of Graduate Studies, Ryerson University, and a honorary member of the Osgoode Hall Graduate Studies in Law, York University.
Tariq’s research interests include the security state and securitization, the post-colonial state, international development, globalization and migration, political and militant Islam, nationalism and ethnicity, comparative study of multiculturalism, race and racism, and issues of state and society in South Asia.
|Sliwinski, Sharon||Visualizing Human Rights: Photography, Atrocity, & the Ethical Imagination|
Sharon Sliwinski is an associate professor in the Faculty of Information & Media Studies and a core member of the Centre for the Study of Theory and Criticism.
She received her PhD from the Social and Political Thought Program at York University in 2005. Her research and teaching focuses on the intersections of human rights and visual culture, psychoanalysis and political theory, and on questions of sexuality and violence. Her most recent research explores the social and political significance of dream-life.
|McCullough, John||Tedium and Torture: Representations of Work, Class Relations and Nation at the Beginning of the 21st Century|
John McCullough is an Associate Professor at the School of Arts’ Media, Performance and Design, Cinema and Media Studies at York University.
His primary area of interest is popular North American film and television. His research includes analysis of media representations of spatial, class and racial relations; media labour in the context of globalization; and aboriginal media production.
|Vanstone, Gail||Documenting D: Studio D of the NFB and Its Representation of Women's Lives in Canada, 1974-1996|
Gail Vanstone is an Associate Professor in the Division of Humanities.
Her ongoing research frames women and the stories they tell as powerful critical tools for understanding women’s experience in a world where their voices are often suppressed. She intend to continue to develop this research, applying it to other subjects she is investigating.
|Foster, Cecil A.||Blackness and Canada: A Phenomenological Exploration|
Cecil Foster is an author and public intellectual with general interests in social justice through social inequalities, diversity and identities.
Cecil writes and comments in a wide variety of publications and mass media, ranging from novels and popular general nonfiction to acclaimed academic works and speeches. Some of his most recent research and writings are in the areas of multiculturalism, critical race and ethnicity, citizenship, state formation, nationalism and cultural development, democracy and other forms of power relationships, human rights, immigration and settlement, mythologies, liberalism and pragmatism.
He is an Assistant Professor at the University of Guelph, in the departments of Sociology & Anthropology. His main geographic area of interest is the Americas, particularly Canada and the Caribbean.
|Varga. Darrell||The Performance of Space in Canadian Film|
Darrell Varga has a PhD in Social and Political Thought from York University (Toronto) and is Canada Research Chair in Contemporary Film and Media Studies at NSCAD University (Nova Scotia College of Art and Design) in Halifax.
He is the author of Shooting From the East: Filmmaking on the Canadian Atlantic (McGill-Queen's University Press), a critical history of filmmaking in Atlantic Canada from the early days of art cinema to the contemporary media industry; and John Walker's Passage (University of Toronto Press), an analysis of John Walker's masterwork.
|Burman, Jenny||Economies of Nostalgia and Yearning: Travelling the Route Between Toronto and Jamaica|
Jenny Burman is an Associate Professor in Communication Studies at McGill University.
She has a Ph.D. in Social and Political Thought from York University (2002). Prof. Burman writes and teaches in the areas of transnational cultural studies, diaspora studies, multi/interculturalism, and urban transformations. She completed a SSHRC-funded research project entitled “Mobile Citizenship, Immobilized Migrants: Detention and Deportation in Canada, Oppositional Activism in Toronto and Montréal”, in 2010.
|Ironston–Catterall, Penelope||Crisis, Trauma, and Testimony: the Work of Mourning in the 'Age of AIDS'|
Penelope Ironston-Catteral is currently the president of the Canadian Communication Association and the book review editor for the Canadian Journal of Communication.
She is actively involved in a number of programs at Laurier, including being a past coordinator of the Cultural Studies Program, and past director of the MA in Cultural Analysis and Social Theory.
She received her PhD in Social and Political Thought from York University in Toronto in 2001 and completed her MA in Comparative Literary Studies (1993) and BA in Directed Interdisciplinary Studies (1991) from Carleton University in Ottawa.
|Fisher, Caitlin||Building Feminist Theory: a Hypertextual Heuristics|
Caitlin Fisher holds a Canada Research Chair in Digital Culture in the Department of Film at York University, Toronto.
A co-founder of York's Future Cinema Lab, her research investigates the future of narrative through explorations of interactive storytelling and interactive cinema in Augmented Reality environments.
|Black, David J.||Wiring Birmingham: Cultural Studies, Romanticism, and the New Media|
David Black is a communication theorist and historian with expertise in media and cultural theory, interpersonal communication, communication history, technology criticism and political communication.
He earned his BA in English literature and anthropology from Wilfrid Laurier University, a MA in cultural anthropology from the University of Chicago and a PhD in social and political thought, specializing in media and cultural theory, from York University. He was nominated for Royal Roads’ Kelly Outstanding Teacher award in 2005, and won the award in 2007
|Ouellet, Eric||Management Consultants: A Sociology of Seduction|
Eric Ouellet is professor of Defence Studies at the Royal Military College of Canada, and at the Canadian Forces College (Canada’s Joint Staff and War College).
He has a Ph.D. in sociology from York University, Toronto, Canada, and he is the liaison officer for Canada with the Parapsychological Association.
|Ramsay, Christine Elizabeth||Masculinity and Processes of Inter-subjectivity in the Films of David Cronenberg |
Christine Ramsay is Associate Professor in the Department of Film at the University of Regina.
Her research and teaching are in the areas of Canadian and Saskatchewan cinemas, masculinities in contemporary cinemas, curatorial studies in expanded cinema, the culture of small cities, and philosophies of identity. She currently serves on the editorial boards of Topia: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies, and Imaginations: Journal of Cross-Cultural Image Studies.
|Dufresne, Todd Raymond||Beyond Beyond: Tales From the Freudian Crypt|
Todd Dufresne is a Professor of Philosophy at Lakehead University.
He has served in numerous administrative positions over the years, from Department Chair in Philosophy to Founding (Interim) Division Head of Human Sciences at NOSM. His current project is on the meaning of the "Anthropocene" in light of the history of philosophy since Kant.
|Kulak, Avron Paul||Origin and Critique: Reading Nietzsche's On The Genealogy of Morals|
Avron Kulak teaches in the Department of Humanities, the Graduate Program in Humanities, and the Graduate Program in Social and Political Thought at York University.
In both his teaching and his research he focuses on the relationship between religion and philosophy in modern European thought.
|Ghisalberti, Giosue||Metaphysics of Finitude|
Giosue Ghisalberti currently teaches courses in philosophy, literature, and psychoanalysis in the department of Liberal Studies at Humber College, Toronto.
He has a Ph.D. in Social and Political Thought from York University and has published academic essays, translations, and reviews.
|Wynn, H. Francine||In the Event of the Future: From the Theory of Time to the Politics of Duration|
Francine Wynn is an Associate Professor, Teaching Stream at the University of Toronto Bloomberg and serves as the Director of U of T Nursing’s Undergraduate Program.
Her clinical background is in psychiatric nursing. Her academic background is in cultural anthropology, as well as social and political thought. She has won several U of T Nursing awards, including a creative teaching award and, most recently, a mentoring award.
|Duchesne, Ricardo||All Contraries Confounded: Historical Materialism and the Transition-To-Capitalism Debate|
Ricardo Duchesne is a Canadian historical sociologist and professor at the University of New Brunswick.
His main research interests are Western civilization and the rise of the West.
|Wickens–Feldman, Renate||Elizabeth Rigby Eastlake's Theory of Photography as the Containment of Communications Technology: A Hermeneutic Reading|
Renate Wickens is an Associate Professor, Faculty of Fine Arts, York University.
As one of four TEL professors at York University, she has a specific mandate to develop technologically-enhanced learning theory with the Faculty of Fine Arts. She is presently working on several interdisciplinary projects. She is the recipient of numerous research and teaching grants and honours, including the 2003 Faculty of Fine Arts Dean's Teaching Award. She was appointed to the Fine Arts Cultural Studies Program in 2000.
|Larrea, Carlos||The Mirage of Development: Oil, Employment, and Poverty in Ecuador (1972-1990)|
Carlos Larrea is Professor of Social Studies at the Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, in Quito, Ecuador, and currently Visiting Fellow at the School of Politics and International Relations at ANU.
He holds his Ph.D. in political economy from York University, Canada, and has post-doctoral studies in health and development from Harvard University. Carlos was a technical adviser of the Yasuni- ITT Initiative in Ecuador, and a consultant for international institutions such as UNDP, UNICEF, PAHO, ILO, UICN, World Bank and IDB. He has published about 15 books and 85 articles, and his current research interests are sustainability and human development in Ecuador and Latin America.
|Longfellow, Brenda||Eccentric Subjcets: Feminist Film Theory and its Others|
Brenda Longfellow is an award-winning filmmaker, writer and film theorist.
Her most recent production, Weather Report (2008), is a feature-length television documentary that explores the effects of climate change on communities around the world. She is currently working on a series of musical shorts exploring the complex weave of delusion, dream and willful complicity that informs the evolution of the Tar Sands in Northern Alberta.
|Conklin, William E.||The Language of Authority.|
William Conklin teaches at the University of Windsor and was recently elected to the Royal Society of Canada.
Bill Conklin received his PhD in Social and Political Thought from York University Canada and graduate degrees in Law from Columbia University and in International Relations from the London School of Economics.
|Havers, Grant||Philosophy and Psychoanalysis: A Critical Study of Spinoza and Freud.|
Grant Havers is Chair of the Department of Philosophy at Trinity Western University.
Havers graduated with a Ph.D. in Social and Political Thought in 1993. He is currently the Chair of the Department of Philosophy at Trinity Western University. Havers has published and lectured widely on modern political philosophy. He is currently writing a book on the Machiavellian influence on right-wing political philosophy.
|Marchessault, Janine||The Moving Image in the Aura of Science: Identity, Technology, History|
Janine Marchessault is a Professor of Cinema and Media Studies in the Department of Cinema and Media Arts at York University.
She held the Canada Research Chair in Art, Digital Media and Globalization (2003-2013) and was the co-founder of Future Cinema Lab and the inaugural Director of Sensorium: Centre for Digital Arts and Technology Research at York University. In 2012
|Michie, Michael Hugh||From Moral Philosophy to Social Economy: The Conservatism of Sir Archibald Alison|
Michael Michie is an associate professor of history in the School of Arts & Letters.
He wrote "An Enlightenment Tory in Victorian Scotland. The Career of Sir Archibald Alison" McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal & Kingston (1997). Professor Michie's publications in refereed journals include:
* "'Buried in the Antipodes': an Enlightenment Scot in Colonial New Zealand," Scottish Tradition, Vol. 21 September 1996.
* "'Mr. Wordy' and the Blackwoods: Author and Publisher in Victorian Scotland," The Bibliotheck Vol. 21 (1997).
He was Associate Dean of Atkinson Faculty (2002-2007).
|Gismondi, Michael A.||Religion and Revolution in Nicaragua: An Historical Perspective|
Mike Gismondi is founding Director of the Master of Arts in Integrated Studies (2001 to 2010) and currently Professor of Sociology and Global Studies in the Centre for Social Sciences.
He is Adjunct Professor of Sociology at the University of Alberta and a Research Fellow with the Centre for Research in Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CERLAC) at York University, Toronto.
|Kompridis, Nikolas||Reconstructing Aesthetic Theory: Between Habermas and Adorno|
Nikolas Kompridis is Research Professor in Philosophy and Political Thought and Director of the Institute for Social Justice.
He is the author of The Aesthetic Turn in Political Thought (Bloomsbury, 2014) Critique and Disclosure: Critical Theory between Past and Future (MIT, 2006), Philosophical Romanticism (Routledge, 2006), and over 50 articles on a very broad spectrum of topics in philosophy and political theory.
|Sawchuck, Kimberly Anne||Marketing Technology and the Body: A Foucauldian Report on Consumer Culture|
Anne Sawchuk is the director of Ageing, Communication, Technologies: Experiencing a Digital World In Later Life (ACT), a seven-year research project funded under the auspices of a 2.9 million dollar SSHRC Partnership Grant.
She is also the co-director of Wi: Journal of Mobile Media and a co-founder of the Mobile Media Lab (York-Concordia), located in Concordia’s Department of Communication Studies.
|Alia, Valerie||Toward a Politics of Naming |
Valerie Alia is an award-winning journalist, academic, author, and photographer.
She is known internationally for defining the discipline of political onomastics the politics of naming and for her work on media ethics, Indigenous Arctic cultures, identities, and communications.
|Stokes, Kenneth Michael||Toward Political Economy for the Epoch of the Noosphere|
Kenneth Michael Stokes studied Economics as well as Social and Political Thought at York University. He is an Associate Professor of Political Economy of the Graduate School of International Relations at the International University of Japan, and a Senior Research Fellow of the International Network for Advanced Political Economy.
His earlier books include the award winning Man and the Biosphere, Paradigm Lost, and Critique of Economic Reason.
|Weir, Lorna||Studies in the Medicalization of Sexual Danger: Sexual Rule, Sexual |
Politics — 1830-1930
Lorna Weir is Professor of Sociology at York University (Toronto).
She specializes in health and social theory. Her books include Pregnancy, Risk and Biopolitics: On the Threshold of the Living Subject (Routledge 2006) and Global Public Health Vigilance: Creating a World on Alert (Routledge 2010, Lorna Weir and Eric Mykhalovskiy). Her current research is on biopolitics, technology and the proper (with an empirical focus on the integration of security into genomics) and sacrifice in biopolitics.
|Taylor, Patrick D.M.||The Narrative of Liberation: Historical Consciousness in the Afro-Caribbean|
Professor Taylor is past director of the Caribbean Religions Project at the Centre for Research on Latin America and the Caribbean. He teaches Postcolonial Thought and Caribbean Literature, Culture, and Religion in the Department of Humanities.
|McNally, David Joseph||The Political Economists and Agrarian Capitalism: A Reinterpretation of Classical Political Economy in Britain and France|
David Joseph McNally is a Professor at the Department of Political Science at York University.
He is an author of six books including, "Monsters of the Market: Zombies Vampires, and Global Capitalism," winner of the 2012 Deutscher Memorial Award and "Global Slump: The Economics and Politics of Crisis and Resistance," winner of the 2012 Paul Sweezy Award from the American Sociological Association.
|Levine, Ellen Greengross||French Romantic Socialism and the Critique of Political Economy (1981) |
Ellen G. Levine is a Professor and Core Faculty member of the European Graduate School. She is a Senior Staff Social Worker at the Hincks-Dellcrest Centre for Children's Mental Health where she teaches, supervises and practices in the areas of play therapy, group therapy and Expressive Arts Therapy. She is also co-founder and faculty member of International School for Interdisciplinary Studies Canada in Toronto, a three year training program in Expressive Arts Therapy.
She holds a Ph.D. from York University in Toronto in the program in Social and Political Thought. Her interdisciplinary dissertation was titled: Psychoanalysis and Symbolism: The Space Between Self and World.” In this work, she examined the later work of Freud and the Object Relations School (Winnicott and Klein) as a base for understanding the role of the arts in therapy.
|Wolin, Richard B.||An Aesthetic of Redemption: A Study in the Philosophical Criticism of Walter Benjamin|
Richard Wolin is a Distinguished Professor of History and Political Science at the CUNY Graduate Center.
He received his M.A. and Ph.D. at York University, Toronto. He then worked at Reed College and Rice University. He is known for a series of debates concerning postmodernism and has criticized particular contributors to and sources of the late-20th-century formulation of postmodern thought, including Nietzsche, Heidegger and Bataille